# Math Functions: How to Work with Math in SQL

SQL is not just a language for querying data. It also includes a rich set of functions that you can use to work with data.

## This article will introduce you to the basic math functions in SQL and show you how to use them.

### Math Functions:

There are a number of different math functions in SQL. The most basic ones are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. These functions work the same way as they do in other programming languages. For example, the following code adds two numbers together and prints the result:

`SELECT 5 + 7;`

The output of this code will be 12. You can also use parentheses to control the order of operations. For example, the following code multiplies 5 and 7 first, and then adds 3:

`SELECT (5 * 7) + 3;`

The output of this code will be 24.

You can also use the modulo operator to get the remainder after division. For example, the following code divides 10 by 3 and prints the result modulo 2:

`SELECT 10 / 3 MOD 2;`

The output of this code will be 0.

Other math functions include square root, logarithm, and exponential. These functions are not as commonly used, but they can come in handy in certain situations. You can find a list of all of the math functions in SQL in the official documentation.

### How to Use Math Functions:

Now that you know about the different math functions in SQL, how do you use them? The easiest way to use a math function is to simply include the function name in your SELECT statement. For example, the following code will calculate the square root of 9:

`SELECT SQRT (9);`

The output of this code will be 3. You can also use the math functions in conditional statements and WHERE clauses. For example, the following code will return all of the rows where the value in the column is greater than 100:

`SELECT * FROM table name WHERE column > 100;`

You can also use math functions in expressions. For example, the following code will return the result of adding 5 and 7:

`SELECT 5 + 7;`

This same expression can also be written as:

`SELECT 5 + (7 * 1);`

The parentheses are not necessary, but they can help to make the code more readable. To know more check RemoteDBA.com

### Operators:

#### The following table lists the math operators in SQL.

```Operator Description

- Subtraction

* Multiplication

/ Division

% Modulus (remainder after division)```

Math Functions:

### The following table lists the math functions in SQL.

Function Description

```abs(x) Returns the absolute value of x

ceil(x) Rounds x up to the nearest integer

floor(x) Rounds x down to the nearest integer

log(x) Returns the natural logarithm of x

max(x, y) Returns the maximum of x and y

min(x, y) Returns the minimum of x and y

mod(x, y) Returns the modulus of x and y (the remainder after division)

Power(x, y) Returns the xth power of y

sqrt(x) Returns the square root of x

trunc(x) Rounds x to the nearest integer```

Example:

The following example uses the math operators to calculate the total cost of a purchase.

```SELECT price + tax AS total_cost

FROM products;```

Output:

`total_cost ------------- 103.00 (1 row(s) affected)`

Example:

The following example uses the math functions to calculate the average price per product.

`SELECT avg(price) AS average_price`

FROM products;

Output:

`average_price ------------- 15.90 (1 row(s) affected)`

Example:

The following example uses the modulus operator to calculate the percentage of a discount.

`SELECT prod_price * (1 - discount/100) AS price_after_discount`

FROM products;

Output:

`price_after_discount --------------------- 13.17 (1 row(s) affected)`

## Conclusion:

SQL includes a rich set of math functions that you can use to work with data. These functions are easy to use, and you can include them in your SELECT statements, conditional statements, and expressions.

SQL has many built-in math functions that you can use in your queries. These functions allow you to perform basic mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. You can also use the modulo operator to get the remainder after division. Additionally, SQL includes more advanced math functions such as square root, logarithm, and exponential. These functions can be useful in certain situations. Raj is a full-time blogger and loves to share some knowledge on technology and software errors. You can follow him on social media to connect more.